Born in Jamaica, Marcus Garvey moved to Harlem in 1916. Based on some of Booker T. Washington's teachings, Garvey established the Universal Negro Improvement Association, becoming the first African American leader to organize people into a political movement. The goal of the organization was to unify those of African descent around the world into a single body that could establish its own country. At one time, Garvey claimed more than a million members. While the UNIA still survives today, Garvey's own influence waned after he was deported from the U.S. on mail fraud charges.
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